The quality management in youth activities
8 marzo 2007
8 marzo 2007
Lecturer PhD Valentin Blândul
Student Florentina Druta
University of Oradea, Romania
The Teacher Training Department
Valentin Cosmin Blandul, nato ad Oradea (Romania) nel 1973, ha conseguito il titolo di Dottore di Ricerca in Pedagogia all’Università di Chisinau (Moldova) nel 2003 (riconosciuto in Romania nel 2004) con la discussione della tesi “Theoretic-methodological orientations in the broachment of school evaluation realised by interactive methodes”. E’ autore di numerosi saggi e studi in tema di sistemi di istruzione europei, di riforma del sistema di formazione, del percorso curriculare e dell’accesso all’istruzione come forma di integrazione sociale.
Abstract – Italiano
L’istruzione rappresenta uno degli aspetti più importanti e complessi, che assicura lo sviluppo dell’essere umano e della sua personalità.
Secondo la legge rumena sull’istruzione del 1995, l’ideale educativo rumeno consiste nella formazione di cittadini che acquisiscano una personalità armoniosa e creativa, capaci di integrarsi, in modo creativo, nella vita sociale, di affrontare e gestire i cambiamenti del mondo contemporaneo.
L’istruzione è un processo indirizzato maggiormente ai giovani. La Romania non costituisce un’eccezione a questa regola. Secondo i dati forniti dall’Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, il Ministero dell’Istruzione della Ricerca, al pari del Rapporto Nazionale sullo Sviluppo Umano, attesta che, durante il 2000, i livelli di partecipazione all’istruzione dei giovani di età inclusa tra i 6 ed i 23 anni è aumentato dal 62,4% (1992) al 66,5%.
In questo articolo, gli autori tentano di illustrare il sistema di istruzione nazionale rumeno ed il modo in cui il Teacher Training Department dell’Università di Oradea può migliorare la qualità dell’istruzione giovanile attraverso i metodi d’insegnamento.
Abstract – Inglese
Education represents one of the most important and complex process, which insures the development of the human being and the development process of the human personality. According to the education law issued in 1995, the ideal of Romanian education is the formation of citizens with harmonious and creative personalities, capable to integrate, in a creative way, in the social life, to face and manage the changes of contemporary world.
Education is a process addressed basically to young people. Romania is not an exception. According to the data of the National Institute of Statistics, The Ministry of Education and Research, as well The National Report on Human Development shows that during the year of 2000 the participation rate to education of young people between 6 – 23 years old has increased from 62,4% (1992) to 66,5%.
In this article, the authors will try to describe the National Romanian educational system and in which way Teacher Traning Department of the University of Oradea can improve the quality of youth education by teaching process.
In the last decades, the spectaculous progress of society concerning all its components (evolution that could be represented like an exponential curve) became an extremely mediated subject in literature. In the whole world, we notice an real „explosion”of informations, technologies, values, aspirations, that determine a small part of paradigmes which we know in twenty’s century loose their „principal authority”. In these terms, we assist to a diversification of axis marks which dominoes us, to a spread of information resources, also to a suffocating technology and information. All these observations determine many specialists (economists, socials, politics, and so on) to affirm that we are in a postmodern era. (V. Blandul, 2005)
Education – like a component of society and more than that, a motor of it – can not and is not able to make any exception. Education represents one of the important and complex processes which mean development of man like a bio-psycho-socio-cultural being capable to integrate active and responsible in daily environment. (E. Macavei, 2001). The new conception about this phenomenon means giving a dimension to relation between educational partners, also to all instructional design. M. Ionescu (2003) says in traditional didactic, teacher is perceived like a person that gives knowledge more or less finished, and pupil is the receiver or he assimilates more or less passively. In modern didactic, the status of pupil changes from “object” to “subject” of education, having task to discover and produce logical inferences regarding obtained results, teacher has, in first way, the role of facilitator.
In present, the Romanian legislation is favorable for a modern and performing education open to all categories of persons. According to Romanian Education Law, adopted in 1995, the ideal of Romanian school is represented by formation of citizens having a harmonious and creative personality, capable to integrate actively in social life like decision and progress factors in contemporary world. In fact, the educational ideal shows Romanian society vision concerning the peoples that it wants to form: tolerant people, but also capable to assume responsibilities, co-operative ones, with leadership qualities, learned people, capable to use obtained knowledge not only like “passed ideas”, but like new sources of many others knowledge.
In these circumstances, the principal goals of education are (D. Cretu, 1999):
- Learning knowledge and cultural values,
- Formatting intellectual capacities, affective availabilities and practical abilities,
- Assimilating intellectual techniques work,
- Educating in spirit of rights and liberties of people,
- Cultivating sensibility concerning human matter,
- Professional young generation.
As we can notice in the above goals, education is a process addressed to young generation, in first time, and its effects are in indefinite term. It is not a change that an ancient Chinese proverb said: “who wants to obtain results, over 1660 years must to invest in education”. Romania is not an exception of that, in actual conditions of instruction, the majority of persons, who frequent an education term, are young people between 25-30 years old. However, in Romania is trying to promote an education system for adults, more and more performing, that look for their aspirations, their psycho-individual and learning particularities, but also real needs of living society. In this way, principal forms of realization of adult’s education are represented by master, doctoral and post-doctoral studies, and number of students is increasing permanently.
Going back on young people and according to the data of the National Institute of Statistics, The Ministry of Education and Research, as well the National Report on Human Development shows several very interesting conclusions. Therefore, in Romania the participation rate to education of young people between 6 and 23 years old has increased from 62,4% (1992) to 66,5% (2000). In the mean time, reporting to scholar cycles, analyzing table 1 and picture 1, on deduce some very interesting conclusions.
The participation rate to education
Table 1 The participation rate to education for Romania
Picture 1 The participation rate to education for Romania
A first extremely important observation represents big number of pupils who frequent secondary education (high school or professional school). Majority follows theoretical line (real or humanist), within the number of pupils from technical schools (arts and jobs) is decreasing (from 84,8% in 1990 to 63,9% in 2000). In other order, the academic Romanian education (public or private) knows a spectacular development after communismfall in 1989. the number of students has increased considerabely by diversification of formation offer, by „relaxation” of admittance exam, also by absorbation inclusive adult population. At this level, the favourite study fields are theoretical ones (real and humanist), within the number of students who frequent polytechnic academies has decreased from 62,5% (1990) to 25,9% (2000). Except these data, Romania is situated under medium level of European countries regarding the number of students involved in educational system.
There were elaborated many strategies for national and local policies of young people in Romania concernig increasing education quality and living level of young generation between 2001-2004.
According to the national and local youth policies, the following priorities were established:
1. Personal development is a life-long process of acquiring new knowledge and skills, increasing the possibilities to express the self – personality and adaptation to the environment conditions.
Development of young people’s skills in having independent learning and studying.
Improvement in personal organization skills of young people.
2. Personal development as an interaction factor, which means multiplying and improving of the interpersonal communication and integration in social groups.
Improvement of relational capacity of young people within educational institutions.
Improvement the participation of young people to organize projects and school activities.
Sensitization of young people about discrimination in schools.
3. Insitutional development in school institutions means to reduce the isolation phenomena which they are in now, in order to offer a diverse educational service offer, with better conditions, better quality, adapted to present times.
The improvement of the partnership relations between school and social actors.
Raising the involvement of young people in the adaptation or curriculum to the local conditions and European tendencies.
On observe, analysing these priorities and goals, that a young man with a harmonious develloped personality is a capable person to assimilate a very important volume of knowledge, to apply in social life and, more than that, to create another new-ones. A young man like this will constitue a progress factor of society in living society. In the mean time, an educate person will be capable to implicate actively in social life, having abilities in settle and keep relations with other peoples, fighting for human writes protection and against discrimination. The educated young people have task in participation to develop their institution by multiplication partenership relations between them and other similar organizations. It results that school has one extremely noble mission to educate capable young people to assure a qualitative future of tomorrow society.
One of the most important institutions of academic education responsable with assurance education quality of young people is University of Oradea, Romania.
According to its meaning, the University of Oradea is responding to the needs of young people. Through 17 accredited faculties, the university offers a large and diverse educational option for 25.000 students. In the same time the youngsters are encouraged to participate in the academic life by having many courses to choose from, by participating in scientific research projects, national and international conferences, publication of articles in academic magazines. The results of the involvement of young people in the social life of the community are their involvement in different national and international projects of student organizations.
In 1999, at Bologna (Italy) The International Conference of Education Ministries from European countries took place, when there were establish the basic of a European system or recognition of superior education through the Transferable Credits System. The document that came out of this conference is called “The Bologna Declaration”.
In Romania the strategies from the Bologna Declaration started to be implemented from the university year 2005/2006. Therefore, the University of Oradea has adapted its education plan according to the European education plan. Its new structure is the following:
- duration 3 years (180 transferable credits) for Faculties of Languages, Social Studies, Sciences<
- duration 4 year (240 transferable credits) for technical faculties<
- duration 6 years (360 transferable credits) for medicine faculties
The finalisation of this stage is the bachelor exam, which is organized on large domains, preparing the students to better integrate in the work field.
Master studies (120 transferable credits) finalized with a dissertation exam. A youngster who has graduated the MA has the possibility to access the PhD studies and post-doctoral studies.
The youngsters who wish to work in education system as teachers, they have to attend the special course organized by the Teacher Training Department (T.T.D.)
Within the University of Oradea, T.T.D. has in its structure the specialization of Education Sciences and Pedagogy. During the university year 2005 – 2006, a number of 10.000 youngsters are attending the courses for initial formation and life-long learning of T.T.D.
To be teacher is a complex and noble profession through its task: instruction, education and free personalities’s formation, socialy integrated, capable of permanent learning, with a critical and creative thinking abilities, finally, with an authentic civic-moral profile. So, the University of Oradea was decided to turn up Techer Traning Department (T.T.D.). T.T.D’s goal is initial and continue formation of interested persons in teaching career.
T.T.D. offers to all students of the University the possibility to become good specialists in didactic career. In present, over 8000 (eight thousant) students / year are prepairing for didactic career, at the University of Oradea. Over 400 from teaching staff participe at continue formation courses, and also at the examd for didactic gradations (degrees).
The initial formation realised at Oradea’s T.T.D. (by agreement with present legislation going by Declaration of Bologna), has the below structure:
Ø Module I – compulsory disciplines:
· Education Psyhology – 1st semester, 2C+2S, 5 credits;
· Introduction in pedagogy. The theory and methodology of curriculum – 2nd semester, 2C+2S, 5 credits;
· The theory and methodology of instruction. The theory and methodology of evaluation – 3rd semester, 2C+2S, 5 credits;
· The didactic of speciality, 4thsemester, 2C+2S, 5 credits;
· The pedagogical practice – 5th-6th semester, 3S, 5 credits;
· The final examination. The didactic portofolio – 6thsemester, 1S, 1 credit.
Ø Module I – optional disciplines (choosing a compulsory discipline):
· Optional psycho-pedagogical disciplines (packet 1) psychopedagogical consiliation; education of extragifted pupils; education of special needs pupils; educational communication; deonthology and scholar legislation – 4thsemester; 1c+2S, 4 credits;
· Optional social-pedagogical disciplines (packet 2) – Educational management; Intercultural education; Adult education; Computerised education; Social psychology – 5th semester, 1C+2S, 4 credits.
Total credits for obtaining a T.T.D.’s graduation certificate =30 ECTS.
Ø Module II – compulsory disciplines:
· Didactic of curricular area – 1st semester, 2C+2S, 5 credits;
· Management of classroom – 2nd semester, 2C+2S, 5 credits;
· Consiliation and orientation – 3rd semester, 2C+2S, 5 credits;
· Computerised instruction – 1st semester, 1C+2S, 4 credits.
Ø Module II – optional disciplines (choosing a compulsory discipline):
· Optional discipline I – intercultural evolution; educational politics; contemporary pedagogical doctrines; management of scholar organisation – 2nd semester; 2C+1S, 4 credits;
· Optional discipline II – the psychopedagogy of adults, the bases of special education; the sociology of education; the methodology of investigation in educational sciences – 3rd semester, 2C+1S, 4 credits.
Final examination (project) – 3rd semester, 3S, 3 credits.
An practical training is realised for all who don’t work in education area in period between Module I and Module II – 42 S.
Total credits for obtaining a certificate of confirmation in didactic perfecting = 60 ECTS.
Demands for pedagogical practice of students:
§ Assistation to 4-5 lessons in speciality;
§ Assistation to 1-2 activities of form master or consiliation;
§ Assistation to 1-2 activities extradidactic activities organised in school (methodical comissions, teacher’s board, competitions, school festivals, orientation and consiliation activities, etc);
§ Teaching 4-5 test lessons in speciality;
§ Completing a psychopedagogical record of a child (choosed by chance) from a school;
§ Completing a child’s caractherisation;
§ Teaching a final lesson.
The final evaluation will be realised regarding all these activities. 7 (seven) is the graduating mark of pedagogical practice.
The educatinal offer of T.T.D. in the academic year 2006 / 2007
§ The educational management – master classes (3 semesters/day);
§ The formation of teachers – master classes – (2 semesters/day);
§ The writting and the management of projects – master classes – (2 semesters/day);
§ Education and civic culture – master classes – (2 semesters/day);
§ Education for health – master classes – (2 semesters/day);
§ Technological education – postgraduate studies for specialisation – (3 semesters/day);
§ Referent teacher – postgraduate studies for specialisation – (3 semesters/day);
§ Psychopedagogical and methodological formation – postgraduation perfection’s classes – (2 semesters/day);
§ Special psychopedagogical formation – postgraduation perfection’s classes – (2 semesters/day);
§ The pedagogy of adults – postgraduation perfection’s classes;
§ Professional reconvertion – postgraduation formation’s classes addressed to schoolmasters (kindergarden and primary school);
§ „Crisana” – a complete program of managers’formation from preacademic teaching (280 hours = 90 ECTS);
§ „Varadinum” –a periodical perfection once at five years – a complete programme (280 hours = 90 ECTS);
§ Mentors perfection course.
Also, T.T.D. organise exams for obtaining didactic degrees: atestation in teaching; second degree and first degree for 37 specialisation; and special courses for prepairing of these exams.
However, the number of pupils/students entrusted to a teacher is quite small. In these conditions, according to the same statistic sources (2005), a teacher teaches 15 pupils in primary school, 18 pupils in inferior secondary school, 21 students in academic education. The matter of young people education is an extremely delicate one, because – as we have underline in this article – the quality of tomorrow life of entire society depends on its realisation. It results that initial and continue formation of teachers have to learn not only resolve young teachers have to learn not only resolve their own compulsory job tasks but also assume responsabilities which contribue to pupils personality devellopment (V. Marcu, 2003). In this way, the young teacher will become a real man of school, capable to transmite a small piece of his spirit to each pupil that he teaches.
Blandul, Valentin (2005) – Contemporary matters of education, Publishing house of Oradea, Romania;
Cretu, Daniela (1999) – Psychopedagogie, Publishing house of Image, Sibiu, Romani;
Macavei, Elena (2001) – Pedagogy. Education theory,Didactic and Pedagogical Publishing House, Bucharest, Romania;
Marcu, Vasile, Filimon, Letitia (2003) – Psychopedagogie for teachers formation, Publishing house of Oradea, Romania;
XXX The National Institute of Statistics, Romani, the Ministry of Education and Research, Romania, the National Report of Human Development, Romania, 2004;
XXX The Local policy of young people – document aprobated by Oradea’s city Local Council, Romania, 2004.
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